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Masonry Bond

Mortar or Masonry Bond refers to the adhesion of the joint mortar to the masonry units or to the reinforcing steel.

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Pattern bond refers to the pattern formed by the masonry units and mortar joints on the face of a wall. The pattern may result from the structural bond, or may be purely decorative and unrelated to the structural  bond.  Figure  8-33  shows  the  six  basic pattern   bonds   in   common   use   today:   running, common  or  American,  Flemish,  English,  stack,  and English  cross  or  Dutch  bond.

The  running  bond  is  the  simplest  of  the  six patterns,  consisting  of  all  stretchers.  Because  the bond  has  no headers,  metal  ties  usually  form  the structural bond. The running bond is used largely in cavity  wall  construction, brick  veneer  walls,  and facing tile walls made with extra wide stretcher tile.The common, or American, bond is a variation of the  running  bond,  having  a  course  of  full-length headers  at  regular  intervals  that  provide  the structural bond as well as the pattern.  Header courses usually appear  at   every   fifth,   sixth,   or   seventh course, depending on the structural bonding requirements.  You can vary the common bond with a Flemish header course. In laying out any bond pattern, be sure to start the  corners  correctly.  In  a  common  bond,  use  a three-quarter  closure  at  the  corner  of  each  header course. In  the  Flemish  bond,  each  course  consists  of alternating headers and stretchers. The headers in every  other  course  center  over  and  under  the stretchers  in  the  courses  in  between.

The  joints between  stretchers  in  all  stretcher  courses  align vertically.   When   headers   are   not   required   for structural  bonding,  you  can  use  bricks  called  blind headers. You can start the corners in two different ways.  In  the  Dutch  corner,  a  three-quarter  closure starts each course. In the English corner, a 2-inch or quarter closure starts the course.The English bond consists of alternating courses of headers and stretchers. The headers center over and under the stretchers. However, the joints between stretchers  in  all  stretcher  courses  do  not  align vertically. You can use blind headers in courses that are not structural bonding courses.The stack bond is purely a pattern bond, with no overlapping  units  and  all  vertical  joints  aligning.  You Must  use  dimensionally  accurate  or  carefully re matched  units  to  achieve  good  vertical  joint alignment.  You  can  vary  the  pattern  with  combi-nations and modifications of the basic patterns shown in  figure  8-33.This pattern usually bonds to the backing with rigid steel ties or 8-inch-thick stretcher units   when   available.In  large  wall  areas  or load-bearing  construction,  insert  steel  pencil  rods  into the horizontal mortar joints as reinforcement.The English cross or Dutch bond is a variation of the  English  bond.  It  differs  only  in  that  the  joints between the stretchers in the stretcher courses align vertically. These joints center on the headers in the courses  above  and  below.When  a  wall  bond  has  no  header  courses,  use metal  ties  to  bond  the  exterior  wall  brick  to  the backing  courses.